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Bahia Grass

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A hard-wearing, coarse-textured grass with soft leaves. It is used in some low maintenance situations and at airports. The grass is slow to establish from seed but once established, it out-competes other more desirable turf species due to its robust root system and dense mat of stolons and rhizomes. In southern Queensland, bahia grass is the major perennial grass weed species in parks and urban open space areas, where it requires frequent mowing during summer to remove the numerous seed heads up to 60 cm tall. Bahia grass shows poor shade tolerance, and is damaged by a number of herbicides safe to use on other warm-season turf species.

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Black Medic

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It is a dark green annual with spreading square stems which do not root at the nodes. The only way it reproduces is by seed. Black medic also has three leaflets and is often confused with clover but black medic does not have a white V mark in the center of each leaflet. Bright yellow flowers cluster and as each flower matures it forms a black seedpod containing a single seed.

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Broadleaf Plantain

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Broadleaf plantain, normally a perennial, sometimes behaves as an annual. It is a problem in lawns and sometimes in thin alfalfa and pastures as well as christmas trees. It is a low growing plant with large leaves.

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Chickweed

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Common chickweed (Stellaria media) is a matted, herbaceous, winter annual broadleaf plant. Chickweed is a prolific spring weed as it thrives under cool, wet conditions. It rarely tolerates hot, dry conditions that occur in late spring or early summer. Other common names for chickweed include starweed, winterweed, satin flower and tongue grass.

Stems: Stems are slender, branched, and have a row of fine hairs on one side. The stems creep along the ground and can root at the nodes.

Flowers: Small white flowers are borne in clusters at the end of the stems. Flowers have five deeply notched petals and, though small, are quite noticeable.

 

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Crabgrass

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Digitaria is a genus of about 300 species of grass (family Poaceae) native to tropical and warm temperate regions. Common names include crabgrass, finger-grass, and fonio. They are slender monocotyledonous annual and perennial lawn, pasture, and forage plants; some are often considered lawn pests. Digitus is the Latin word for “finger”, and they are distinguished by the long, finger-like inflorescences they produce.

All crabgrasses have similar growth habits and flowering structures, but species are separated by minor differences in the flower structures and leaf pubescence. They typically have spreading stems with wide flat leaf blades that lie on the ground with the tips ascending. The inflorescence is a panicle in which the spike-like branches are arranged in digitate fashion. The spikelets are arranged in two rows on an angled or winged rachis. Each spikelet has two florets, only one of which is fertile. The first bracts at the base of the spikelets are either very minute or absent.

Crabgrass seed has a long germination period; if conditions are right, it can germinate throughout the growing season. Crabgrasses occur in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions of both hemispheres.
Crabgrasses have uses despite being classified by many as weeds. The seeds, most notably those of fonio, can be toasted and ground into a flour, which can be used to make porridge or fermented to make beer. Fonio has been widely used as a staple crop in parts of Africa. It also has decent nutrient qualities as a forage for cattle.

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Curly Dock

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Curly dock weed is a perennial weed that is a member of the buckwheat family. It has a characteristic jointed stems, a membranous sheath at the leaf base, and usually swollen nodes. Mature curly dock weeds have stout stems and can grow between 2 to 5 feet (0.6 to 1.5 m) tall. Curly dock weed usually grows in wet areas such as those caused by overwatering or those in low areas with standing water. They are found in weed pastures, hay fields, forages, landscapes, and some agronomic crops.

Flowers of the curly dock weed come out in clusters on the upper portion of the elongating stem, consisting of greenish sepals that become reddish-brown with age.

 

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Dallisgrass

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Dallisgrass plants form loose bunches that grow from 1 to 5 feet (about 1.5 m) tall. Plants grow from prostrate with erect tips to totally erect. The leaf sheath is somewhat flattened and its base is hairy, often tinged red, and usually inflated. The underground stems are fairly short and have areas that appear as concentric rings. Dallisgrass can be distinguished from tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea, which forms clumps rather than loose bunches. Also similar in appearance is knotgrass, Paspalum distichum, which does not have the flattened stems and hairless stem joints (nodes) of dallisgrass; rather, it has rounded stems and hairy nodes. In mowed sites, such as lawns and recreational fields, if may be confused with crabgrass but crabgrass leaves are soft whereas dallisgrass leaves are stiffer.

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Dandelion

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Dandelions are a persistent weed problem. Each seed head of a mature plant produces thousands of weed seeds that float easily in the breeze. So if anyone in your immediate vacinity has dandelions, you can count on you having them too.

 

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Fescue Clumps

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Fescue clumps are long-lived, clump-forming perennial grass producing broad, coarse leaves up to 18 inches tall that will persist throughout the year unless the summers are too dry, when it may go dormant. Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue resume vegetative growth in the fall and remain green over winter, though they only make wintertime growth when the soil temperature is above 40 degrees. In late spring, the clumps flower and send up a number of 3-foot-long flowering spikes, which produce the seeds.

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Fireweed

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Fireweed is a common, leafy, annual broad leaf weed that germinates after April 1st across the Southeast. It grows quickly, which is why weed management is both crucial and difficult. Fireweed can appear in massive numbers that will seem to be taking over the lawn. This weed grows from the thatch layer in warm season lawns (Bermuda and Zoysia) and is able to live above the previously established pre-emergent barrier in your turf that Absolute Green applies. Since fireweed can’t root in properly, regular mowing and increased seasonal heat will cause it to dry up and prevent it from taking over a lawn. While our broad leaf weed sprays will help with weed management, it may continue to germinate for a few months until the temperatures finally wear it out. In the end, this weed is a seasonal nuisance that won’t have a lasting presence in your lawn.

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Ground Ivy

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Ground ivy is also is called gill-over-the-ground and creeping charlie. This perennial member of the mint family is a weed problem in turf and ornamentals. It has a blue flower. One of the better identification features is the scalloped edge of the round leaves. Acting as a vine it moves out from underneath trees and shrubs and creeps across the grass area rooting from the nodes as it travels. Herbicides control it in the lawn but it soon reinfests from the tree and shrub areas.

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Henbit

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The plant is called Henbit (Lamium amplexicaule). Members of the Lamium genus can run the gamut from annuls to perennials and from wanted to unwanted plants. In this case Henbit is usually considered a weed. It usually pops up in early spring in lawns, flower & shrub beds.

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Nutsedge

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Sedge stems are erect and hairless. Although sedge leaves superficially resemble grass leaves, they lack collars, ligules, and auricles. Sedge leaves are thicker and stiffer than most grasses, are V-shaped in cross-section, and arranged in sets of three from the base rather than sets of two as found in grass leaves. Sedge stems are triangular in cross-section; grass stems are hollow and round. Yellow nutsedge stems grow to 3 feet (0.9 m) tall and its leaves are light green, and have pointed tips. Purple nutsedge stems grow to 1-1/3 feet (0.4 m) tall and have dark green leaves with rounded leaf tips. Tubers of yellow nutsedge are produced singly while purple nutsedge tubers are produced in chains, with several on a single rhizome.

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Oxalis

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Leaves, alternate, divided into three partly-folded, deeply cut, heart-shaped lobes. Foliage with sour, acrid taste. Flowers, bright yellow, with five petals, on stalk bent below the fruit attached to a common point. Fruit a narrow “okra-like”capsule. In addition to being an unsightly weed, this plant has been known to harbor pests such as whiteflies and spider mites.

Oxalis has two properties that make it particularly problematical. One is the vigorous network of bulbs that it develops, rendering ineffective, hand or mechanical weeding. Secondly, while most perennial weeds are active during the summer, the primary growing season for Oxalis is the winter.

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Poa Annua

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Poa Annua is a common weed of cultivation, known in the Americas as annual bluegrass. It occurs as a common constituent of lawns, where it is also often treated as a weed, and grows on waste ground. However, it is sometimes the most suitable lawn grass for many sites, and can form most of the entire grass sward in some lawns. On lawns it grows better in rich soils, but is usually small enough to be overlooked. It does not compete with other plants. Many golf putting greens, including the famously fast Oakmont Country Club greens, are planted with this grass, although many courses have converted to bentgras.

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Quackgrass

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This is a perennial that reproduces by seed and rhizomes. The leaf blade is broader, grows faster, taller and is a lighter green in colour than the rest of your lawn. Quackgrass can spread quickly giving your lawn an uneven appearance. It produces seed heads from June to September.

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Speedwell

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There are several types of speedwell, all characterized by small, lobed, and numerous leaves, and by tiny white or purple flowers. The scallop-edged leaves are paired, growing opposite each other. Heart-shaped seed pods grow on the stems below the flowers

Speedwells are among the earliest of lawn weeds to appear, greening up as early as late winter. Most are characterized by creeping stems that root at the nodes. Some show an erect growth habit as they mature. They all thrive in cool, moist soils where turf has thinned.

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Spurge

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Prostate spurge is a summer annual. While similar to spotted spurge, there are several subtle differences in the two varieties. Spotted spurge has a more erect growth habit than prostrate spurge. They have similar leaves, which are small and oblong shaped with an irregular red to purple spot, but the leaf of spotted spurge is slightly larger than that of prostrate spurge. Both spurges will have leaves that grow opposite on the stem, but spotted spurge has fewer leaves per stem.

Both spurges contain a milky sap in the stem. Prostrate spurge roots at the nodes, spotted spurge does not. The flower of spotted spurge is small and green in color.

 

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Wild Violet

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Wild violet is a winter perennial, growing 2 – 5 inches tall. It can have a tap root or a fibrous root system, and also can produce rooting stolons and rhizomes. The leaves can vary but usually are heart shaped, on long petioles with scalloped to shallow rounded margins.

The flowers of wild violet range from white to blue to purple and appear from March to June. Wild violet flowers are pansy-like with three lower petals and two lateral petals on long single flower stalks.

Wild violets are found throughout the United States, except for the Rocky Mountains. Wild violets are more common where they are sold as ornamental ground covers.

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