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Black Medic

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It is a dark green annual with spreading square stems which do not root at the nodes. The only way it reproduces is by seed. Black medic also has three leaflets and is often confused with clover but black medic does not have a white V mark in the center of each leaflet. Bright yellow flowers cluster and as each flower matures it forms a black seedpod containing a single seed.

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Chickweed

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Common chickweed (Stellaria media) is a matted, herbaceous, winter annual broadleaf plant. Chickweed is a prolific spring weed as it thrives under cool, wet conditions. It rarely tolerates hot, dry conditions that occur in late spring or early summer. Other common names for chickweed include starweed, winterweed, satin flower and tongue grass.

Stems: Stems are slender, branched, and have a row of fine hairs on one side. The stems creep along the ground and can root at the nodes.

Flowers: Small white flowers are borne in clusters at the end of the stems. Flowers have five deeply notched petals and, though small, are quite noticeable.

 

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Crabgrass

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Digitaria is a genus of about 300 species of grass (family Poaceae) native to tropical and warm temperate regions. Common names include crabgrass, finger-grass, and fonio. They are slender monocotyledonous annual and perennial lawn, pasture, and forage plants; some are often considered lawn pests. Digitus is the Latin word for “finger”, and they are distinguished by the long, finger-like inflorescences they produce.

All crabgrasses have similar growth habits and flowering structures, but species are separated by minor differences in the flower structures and leaf pubescence. They typically have spreading stems with wide flat leaf blades that lie on the ground with the tips ascending. The inflorescence is a panicle in which the spike-like branches are arranged in digitate fashion. The spikelets are arranged in two rows on an angled or winged rachis. Each spikelet has two florets, only one of which is fertile. The first bracts at the base of the spikelets are either very minute or absent.

Crabgrass seed has a long germination period; if conditions are right, it can germinate throughout the growing season. Crabgrasses occur in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions of both hemispheres.
Crabgrasses have uses despite being classified by many as weeds. The seeds, most notably those of fonio, can be toasted and ground into a flour, which can be used to make porridge or fermented to make beer. Fonio has been widely used as a staple crop in parts of Africa. It also has decent nutrient qualities as a forage for cattle.

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Curly Dock

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Curly dock weed is a perennial weed that is a member of the buckwheat family. It has a characteristic jointed stems, a membranous sheath at the leaf base, and usually swollen nodes. Mature curly dock weeds have stout stems and can grow between 2 to 5 feet (0.6 to 1.5 m) tall. Curly dock weed usually grows in wet areas such as those caused by overwatering or those in low areas with standing water. They are found in weed pastures, hay fields, forages, landscapes, and some agronomic crops.

Flowers of the curly dock weed come out in clusters on the upper portion of the elongating stem, consisting of greenish sepals that become reddish-brown with age.

 

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Dallisgrass

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Dallisgrass plants form loose bunches that grow from 1 to 5 feet (about 1.5 m) tall. Plants grow from prostrate with erect tips to totally erect. The leaf sheath is somewhat flattened and its base is hairy, often tinged red, and usually inflated. The underground stems are fairly short and have areas that appear as concentric rings. Dallisgrass can be distinguished from tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea, which forms clumps rather than loose bunches. Also similar in appearance is knotgrass, Paspalum distichum, which does not have the flattened stems and hairless stem joints (nodes) of dallisgrass; rather, it has rounded stems and hairy nodes. In mowed sites, such as lawns and recreational fields, if may be confused with crabgrass but crabgrass leaves are soft whereas dallisgrass leaves are stiffer.

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