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Bahia Grass

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A hard-wearing, coarse-textured grass with soft leaves. It is used in some low maintenance situations and at airports. The grass is slow to establish from seed but once established, it out-competes other more desirable turf species due to its robust root system and dense mat of stolons and rhizomes. In southern Queensland, bahia grass is the major perennial grass weed species in parks and urban open space areas, where it requires frequent mowing during summer to remove the numerous seed heads up to 60 cm tall. Bahia grass shows poor shade tolerance, and is damaged by a number of herbicides safe to use on other warm-season turf species.

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Broadleaf Plantain

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Broadleaf plantain, normally a perennial, sometimes behaves as an annual. It is a problem in lawns and sometimes in thin alfalfa and pastures as well as christmas trees. It is a low growing plant with large leaves.

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Fescue Clumps

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Fescue clumps are long-lived, clump-forming perennial grass producing broad, coarse leaves up to 18 inches tall that will persist throughout the year unless the summers are too dry, when it may go dormant. Cool-season grasses such as tall fescue resume vegetative growth in the fall and remain green over winter, though they only make wintertime growth when the soil temperature is above 40 degrees. In late spring, the clumps flower and send up a number of 3-foot-long flowering spikes, which produce the seeds.

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Oxalis

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Leaves, alternate, divided into three partly-folded, deeply cut, heart-shaped lobes. Foliage with sour, acrid taste. Flowers, bright yellow, with five petals, on stalk bent below the fruit attached to a common point. Fruit a narrow “okra-like”capsule. In addition to being an unsightly weed, this plant has been known to harbor pests such as whiteflies and spider mites.

Oxalis has two properties that make it particularly problematical. One is the vigorous network of bulbs that it develops, rendering ineffective, hand or mechanical weeding. Secondly, while most perennial weeds are active during the summer, the primary growing season for Oxalis is the winter.

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Speedwell

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There are several types of speedwell, all characterized by small, lobed, and numerous leaves, and by tiny white or purple flowers. The scallop-edged leaves are paired, growing opposite each other. Heart-shaped seed pods grow on the stems below the flowers

Speedwells are among the earliest of lawn weeds to appear, greening up as early as late winter. Most are characterized by creeping stems that root at the nodes. Some show an erect growth habit as they mature. They all thrive in cool, moist soils where turf has thinned.

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